Probio7 Kidskalm contains the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103. This Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) isolate is equivalent to the original L. rhamnosus GG (LGG®) strain. The genome is identical to the LGG genome at >99.999%(1).
Lactobacillus GG was discovered in 1985 and is considered one of the worlds most researched live strain, with more than 200 clinical studies have been conducted on Lactobacillus GG. It has shown to be an effective probiotic as it is able to survive the stomach acid, colonise and adhere to the intestines and produce antimicrobial substances to support digestive health(2). Lactobacillus LGG has been clinically proven to address topics such as diarrhoea and other forms of gastrointestinal distress(3-11).
Chronic abdominal pain in children is one of the most common reasons for referral to a specialist(12). The use of Lactobacillus GG has been shown to moderately increase treatment success in children with abdominal pain-related function gastrointestinal disorders, particularly those with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); this effect is sustained and may be secondary to improvement of the gut barrier(13).
Diarrhoea in children can be caused by a number of different kinds of pathogens including bacterial infections (such as Campylobacter, Clostridium, Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli) and viral infections (including Rotavirus and norovirus). Group A rotaviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children < 2 years of age and account annually for nearly 600,000 child deaths worldwide(14). Clinical studies show that Lactobacillus GG can reduce the duration of acute infectious diarrhoea, including rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, to an average of 56.3 hours, as compared to 76.6 hours in the control group(5) , as shown in Figure 1.
Antibiotics can determinately affect the balance of the gut microbiome15 by killing susceptible intestinal flora bacteria(16). This can lead to numerous side effects including abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhoea and Candida infestation(17). Lactobacillus GG has extensively studied and is regarded as the ideal probiotic to lower the occurrence of antibiotic-associated side effects(18). Lactobacillus GG can be used during antibiotic therapy to maintain the balance of the gut microbiota and therefore, help prevent the common side effects(17). Children taking Lactobacillus GG with their antibiotics were significantly less likely to suffer from antibiotic- associated side effects like diarrhoea(18).
Lactobacillus GG has been demonstrated to benefit the immune defence by contributing to the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and stimulating the innate and adaptive immune response(19).
Children’s immune system are continually developing and are constantly being exposed to new pathogens, especially in new environments. Therefore, it is likely that they will contract gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections. Several studies show that Lactobacillus GG can help prevent and reduce the duration and severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children(20-22). Figure 2 shows that the children that received Lactobacillus GG had a reduced risk of upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) infections than the children receiving a placebo(20). By supporting children’s immune systems, via their digestive tracts, Lactobacillus GG can reduce the number of sick days children have throughout the year(20-22).
Figure 2 - Graph showing the number of children with gastrointestinal infections and respiratory infections taking either LGG or placebo
- Espadaler Mazo, J., Astó Sanchez-Lafuente, E., Mendez Sobrado, I. and Navarro Tapia, E. (2018) “Equivalence of a novel L.rhamnosus isolate to the reference ATCC53103 strain,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 72((suppl 1) 309/84), p. 5484
- Nixon, A. F., Cunningham, S. J., Cohen, H. W. and Crain, E. F. (2012) “The effect of Lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department” Pediatric emergency care. 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31826cad9
- Aggarwal S, Upadhyay A, Shah D, Teotia N, Agarwal A, Jaiswal V. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial. Indian J Med Res. 2014;139(3):379-385.
- Basu S, Paul DK, Ganguly S, Chatterjee M, Chandra PK. Efficacy of high-dose lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in controlling acute watery diarrhea in indian children: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43(3):208-213.
- Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: A multicenter european trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30(1):54-60.
- Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen E, Laine S, Arvilommi H. Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human lactobacillus strain. Pediatr Res. 1992;32(2):141-144.
- Majamaa H, Isolauri E, Saxelin M, Vesikari T. Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;20(3):333-338.
- Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF. The effect of lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(10):1048-1051.
- Pant AR, Graham SM, Allen SJ, et al. Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. J Trop Pediatr. 1996;42(3):162-165.
- Raza S, Graham SM, Allen SJ, et al. Lactobacillus GG in acute diarrhea. Indian Pediatr. 1995;32(10):1140-1142.
- Shornikova A-, Isolauri E, Burkanova L, Lukovnikova S, Vesikari T. A trial in the karelian republic of oral rehydration and lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics. 1997;86(5):460-465.
- Francavilla, R., Miniello, V., Magista, A. M., De Canio, A., Bucci, N., Gagliardi, F., Lionetti, E., Castellaneta, S., Polimeno, L., Peccarisi, L., Indrio, F. and Cavallo, L. (2010) “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus GG in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain,” Pediatrics, 126(6), pp. e1445–e1452. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0467.
- Horvath, A., Dziechciarz, P. and Szajewska, H. (2011) “Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111), 33(12), pp. 1302–1310. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04665.x.
- Giaquinto, C., Van Damme, P., Huet, F., Gothefors, L., Maxwell, M., Todd, P. and da Dalt, L. (2007) “Clinical Consequences of Rotavirus Acute Gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004–2005: The REVEAL Study,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Oxford University Press, 195(s1), pp. S26– S35. doi: 10.1086/516717.
- Madden J, Plummer S, Tang J, Garaiova I, Plummer N, Herbison M et al. Effect of probiotics on preventing disruption of the intestinal microflora following antibiotic therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. International Immunopharmacology. 2005;5(6):1091-1097.
- Govender M, Choonara Y, Kumar P, du Toit L, van Vuuren S, Pillay V. A Review of the Advancements in Probiotic Delivery: Conventional vs. Non-conventional Formulations for Intestinal Flora Supplementation. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2013;15(1):29-43.
- Kerna NA. Global Health Preventive Medicine Overture: Select Probiotic Use in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and the Treatment of C. Difficile and Distinct Tropical Diseases. SM Prev Med Public Health. 2018; 2(3): 1021.
- Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.J Pediatr. 1999;135:564-568.
- Francavilla R, Miniello V, Magista A, De Canino A, Bucci N, Gagliardi F, Lionetti E, Castellaneta S, Polimeno L, Peccarisi L, Indrio F, Cavallo L. A randomized controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in children with functional abdominal pain. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):e1445-52.
- Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdovic S, Szajewska H, Misak Z, Kolacek S. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2010;29(3):312-316.
- Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: Double blind, randomised trial. Br Med J. 2001;322(7298):1327-1329.
- Kumpu M, Kekkonen RA, Kautiainen H, et al. Milk containing probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and respiratory illness in children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(9):1020-1023.