A list of foods to eat and avoid when you're on the FODMAP diet

FODMAPs are a group of carbohydrates found in a wide range of foods that are poorly absorbed in the small intestines.  

The term FODMAP stands for Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols - this is the scientific name given to groups of carbohydrates based on their chemical structure. We have highlighted below what some of these FODMAP foods are and some suggested food swaps.

If you want to learn more about the FODMAP diet, check out this article here.

 

Starchy food

Minor wheat ingredients in a food do not need to be avoided (e.g. thiceners and flavourings)

Foods to avoid

Suitable foods

Cereal Grains
  • Wheat (including bulghur wheat, couscous, semolina)
  • Rye,
  • Barley
  • Amaranth
Cereal grains and starchy foods
  • Rice (and rice bran), oats (and oat bran), tapioca, potatoes, buckwheat, polenta, corn, quinoa

Bread

All wheat bread and rolls:

  • White, wholemeal, multigrain , sourdough (small amounts may be ok)
  • Pitta bread, bagels, ciabatta, focaccia,Panini, naan bread, chapatti
  • Croissants, muffins, brioche, pastriescrumpets and most bakery goods
  • Garlic bread, pizza bases
  • Rye bread, spelt bread.

Bread

  • Wheat free / Gluten free bread and rolls
  • Bread made from: oat, rice, corn, tapioca, potato flours
  • 100% spelt sourdough (only)
  • Wheat free or gluten free pizza bases, pitta bread, ciabatta, naan bread
  • Homemade wheat free bread using a bread-maker is a good option

Flour

  • All wheat flour white, wholemeal, plain, strong, selfraising
  • Rye, barley, gram (Chick Pea) flours
  • Coconut flour, spelt flour, soya flour

Flour and raising agents

  • Wheat free / gluten free flour, buckwheat, cornflour, millet flour, maize flour, polenta, potato, rice flour
  • Baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, cream of tartar, yeast
Breakfast cereals
  • Wheat or bran based cereals (weetabix, shredded wheat, bran flakes, All-bran, cheerio’s, muesli)
  • Wheat bran, wheat germ, spelt flakes
Breakfast cereals
  • Porridge / oat cereals, oat bran cornflakes, rice krispies
  • Some wheat free or gluten free muesli and cereals (check fruit).

Savoury Biscuits

  • Water biscuits, crisp breads, Cornish wafers, cream crackers, spelt crackers
  • Rye crispbreads

Savoury Biscuits / Snacks

  • Rice crackers, corncakes, oatcakes, wheat free or gluten free crackers
  • Plain / salted popcorn or plain crisps

Sweet Biscuits

All biscuits made with wheat flour (digestives, shortbread, rich tea, custard creams etc)

Sweet Biscuits

  • Some Florentines, macaroons, oat based biscuits, flapjacks.
  • Most ‘free from’ biscuit varieties

Cakes

All cakes made with wheat flour (fruit cake, fairy cake, Victoria sponge, chocolate cake etc)

Cakes

  • Flourless cakes, meringues, cornflour sponge.
  • Most ‘free from’ varieties are wheat free.

Pastry

  • All pastry made with wheat flour (shortcrust, puff, flaky, filo,)
  • Shop brought pastry and pastry goods (pies, quiche, pasties)

Pastry

Wheat free or gluten free varieties and mixes.

Breadcrumbs and batter

Crumbed fish and poultry, fish fingers, fish in batter, tempura batter, scotch eggs.

Breadcrumbs and batter

Polenta, oats, cornflake crumbs, gluten free breadcrumbs/ batter

Fruits and Vegetables

Foods to avoid

Suitable foods

Fruit (Fresh, dried or juice)
  • Apple, Apricot, Blackberry, Cherries, Dates, Figs, Mango, Nectarine, Peach, Pear, Plum/prune, Sultanas, Watermelon,
  • Tinned fruit in apple or pear juice. Tropical fruit juice, or juices from fruits above
  • Jams, sauces or chutneys containing fruits above.

Fruit

Aim for 3 portions, but spread through the day. One portion at a time= 80g fresh fruit, 1tbs dried fruit or100ml fruit juice. Portion sizes in brackets are for fruits which must be more strictly limited*.
  • Banana, Blueberry , Cantaloupe , Clementine, Cranberries, Galia melon, Grapes, Grapefruit* (<half, small), Honeydew melon, Kiwi, Lemon, Lime , Lychee* (<5) Mandarin, Orange, Passion fruit, Papaya, Pineapple, Pomegranate*(half small) Raspberry, Raisins Rhubarb, Strawberry

Vegetables

Vegetables with * may be eaten in very small quantities (<3tbs /day). Those underlined must be strictly avoided.

  • Artichoke hearts*, Artichoke (Jerusalem), Asparagus*, Avocado* (<¼ ). Beetroot*, Broccoli*, Brussels Sprouts*, Butternut squash*, Cauliflower, Celery*, Chicory root, Fennel* (bulb and leaves) Garlic, Leek, Mange tout*, Mushroom, Okra*, Onion (red, white, Spanish, shallots), Peas*, Savoy Cabbage*, Spring onion (white part). Sweet potato*, Sweetcorn*,
  • Beans and pulses (chickpeas, broad beans, soy beans, black eyes beans, butter beans, lentils, baked beans, kidney beans, split peas).
  • Croissants, muffins, brioche, pastriescrumpets and most bakery goods

Vegetables

Try to have at least 2 portions per day. One portion is 80g (2-3tbs). There is no upper limit to the amount you can have at once
    • Alfalfa, Asparagus, Sugar snap peas, Aubergine, Bamboo shoot, Beansprouts, Carrot, Chard, Chilli, Chive, Courgette, Cucumber, Endive, Green beans, Lettuce, Olive, Pak Choy, Parsnip, Pepper (green, orange, yellow and red), Plantain, White Potato, Pumpkin, Radish, Rocket, Seaweed, Spinach, Spring onion (green part only), Swede, Tomato, Turnip, White or red cabbage
    • Homemade wheat free bread using a bread-maker is a good option

    Flavoured crisps. soups, stocks, gravy, sauces, dressings, & ready meals

    • These should be avoided as they routinely contain garlic or onion ingredients
    • Garlic or onion ingredients: These should be avoided as they are a concentrated source of FODMAPs. Check ingredients labels.
    • Dried onion or garlic, garlic or onion extract, garlic or onion powder, garlic or onion puree, garlic or onion salt.

    Soups, stocks, gravy, sauces, dressings & ready meals

    • Use homemade alternatives with dried herbs and spices or chives below. Garlic infused oil (strained) may be used and Asofoetida powder (hing) can provide onion flavour.
    • Salt, pepper, white/rice vinegar, balsamic vinegar (1tbs only) any herbs, spices, chilli, chives, cinnamon, coriander, ginger, lemon/lime juice green part of spring onion, marmite, mustard,
    Sugars, preserves, sauces and confectionary
    • Honey, Agave nectar, Fructose syrup,
    • Sweet and savoury sauces, snack bars.

    Check ingredients label for: glucose-fructose syrup, fructose-glucose syrup, high fructose corn syrup and high fructose corn syrup solids.

    Added Polyols

    • Sugar-free mints, Sugar-free chewing gums, sugar-free lollies, sugar-free chocolate, some ‘diet/low calorie’ products, protein powders and supplement drinks.
    Check ingredients label for sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalt.

    Added Fructans
    • Foods or tablets with added fibre or prebiotics e.g some yoghurts, fermented milk drinks, snack bars, breakfast cereals.
    Check ingredients labels for FOS, inulin, oligfructose.

    Sugars, preserves and confectionary

    Check ingredients in low sugar or reduced sugar jam and marmalade for Polyols.

    Some artificial sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame K, saccharin, Canderel, Silver spoon Splenda, Hermesetas.

    Most people in the UK eat too much sugar. For a healthy diet you should try eating less food containing added sugars. High sugar foods contain more than 15g per 100g and low sugar foods contain up to 5g sugars per 100g.

    Nuts and seeds

    • Cashew and Pistachio Nuts.
    • Coconut (dried) in large quantities.

    Nuts and seeds

    • Most are suitable in moderation (small handful)
    • Macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts.
    • Coconut, dried (<3 tbs) Almonds and hazelnuts - maximum 10.
    • Peanut butter

    Drinks

    • Chicory (Camp), Dandelion tea, Camomile, Chai, Fennel.
    • Check fruit and herbal teas for unsuitable fruit (apple).
    • Alcohol-Rum, Dessert wine.

    Drinks

    Have at least 6-8 glasses or 1.5-2.0 litres of fluid per day. Choose water or non-caffeinated drinks and limit fizzy drinks.

    Alcohol – is a stimulant and may increase IBS symptoms. While most alcoholic drinks are low in FODMAP’s, if alcohol increases your symptoms, limit your intake

    High Lactose Food

    Foods to avoid

    Suitable foods

    Milk

    • Whole, skimmed, semi-skimmed milk, goats, sheeps milk, buttermilk*
    • milk powder, evaporated milk, condensed milk.

    Milk Ensure alternative milks are calcium enriched. Check alternative milks for apple juice, fructose and inulin.

    • Lactose free milk (Lactofree, own brands)
    • Almond or hazelnut milk
    • <60ml Soya milk
    • <200ml Rice milk (Rice Dream, Alpro)
    • <50ml Oat Milk (Oatly Oat Drink)
    • *¼ cup (50ml) maximum of whole, skimmed or semi –skimmed milk is permitted in a drink, part of a meal or snack

    Yoghurt

    • Whole milk, low fat, greek, drinking yoghurts*.
    • Fromage frais.

    Yoghurt Check for problem fruit, FOS, inulin, oligofructose. fruit juice concentrate, fructose.

    • Lactose free cow’s milk yoghurt
    • Max 125g Soya yoghurt 
    • Coconut yoghurt
    • *2tbs maximum (check for other FODMAP’s) is permitted as part of a meal or snack

    Cheese*

    Processed cheese, cheese slices, reduced fat cheddar

    Cheese

    *2 tbs maximum Cottage cheese, ricotta, quark, low fat soft cheese, mascarpone, 2 slices halloumi.

    Cheddar, feta, mozzarella, brie, camembert, blue, cream cheese, Edam, goats.

    Other dairy:

    Other dairy:

    Butter, cream, sour cream, crème fraiche are low lactose in small amounts.

    Ice cream*

    Ice cream check for other FODMAP’s

    • Lactose free ice-cream (Lactofree)
    • Soya ice cream (Swedish Glace)
    • *1 scoop maximum of normal ice cream.
    Chocolate*

    Chocolate: Dark chocolate Ok

    *30g maximum of milk / white chocolate.